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Ballerina Apache Ballerina 1 0 0 0 Updated Dec 17, C Apache Previous 1 2 Next. Previous Next. Top languages Loading….

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Accept Reject. Function types are covariant in their return types and contravariant in the type of their parameter lists. More precisely, a function type with return type R and parameter list type P is a subtype of a function type with return type R' and parameter list type P' if and only if R is a subtype of R' and P' is a subtype of P.

A function value f belongs to a function type T if the declared type of f is a subtype of T. Objects are a combination of fields along with a set of associated functions, called methods, which can be used to manipulate them.

An object's methods are associated with the object when the object is constructed and cannot be changed thereafter. The fields and methods of an object are in separate symbol spaces, so it is possible for an object to have a field and a method with the same name.

An object type descriptor, in addition to describing the object type, also defines a way to construct an object of this type, in particular it provides the method definitions that are associated with the object when it is constructed.

It is also possible to have an object type descriptor that only describes an object type and cannot be used to construct an object; this is called an abstract object type descriptor.

If object-type-quals contains the keyword abstract , then the object type descriptor is an abstract object type descriptor.

If object-type-quals contains the keyword client , then the object type is a client object type. A client object type may have remote methods; other objects types must not.

An object-field-descriptor specifies a field of the object. The names of all the fields of an object must be distinct.

Methods are functions that are associated to the object and are called via a value of that type using a method-call-expr. The names of all the methods of an object must be distinct: there is no method overloading.

Within a method-body , the fields and methods of the object are not implicitly in-scope; instead the keyword self is bound to the object and can be used to access fields and methods of the object.

If an object type is abstract, every method must be specified using a method-decl. Otherwise every method must be specified using a method-defn. A method that is declared or defined with the remote qualifier is a remote method.

A remote method is allowed only in a client object. A remote method is invoked using a different syntax from a non-remote method.

Each field and method of an object type is visible within and can be accessed from a specific region of code, which is specified by its object-visibility-qual as follows:.

The shape of an object consists of an unordered collection of object field shapes and an unordered collection of object method shapes.

An object field shape or object method shape is a triple consisting of the name of the field or method, the visibility region, and a shape for the value of the field or for the method's function.

An object type is inclusive, in a similar way to an inclusive-record-type-descriptor: an object shape belongs to an object type if it has at least the fields and methods described in the object-type-descriptor.

An object-type-descriptor that has a field with name f, visibility region R and type T contains an object shape only if the object shape contains an object field shape that has name f, visibility region R and a value shape that is contained in T.

An object-type-descriptor that has a method with name m, visibility region R and function type T contains an object shape only if the object shape contains an object method shape that has name m, visibility region R and a function value that belongs to type T.

Thus an object type T' is a subtype of an object type T only if for each field or method f of T there is a corresponding field or method f' of T such that the type of f' in T' is a subtype of the type of f in T and the visibility region of f' in T' is the same as the visibility region of f in T.

A non-abstract object type provides a way to initialize an object of the type. An object is initialized by:. A field is potentially uninitialized at some point if that field does not have a default value and it is not definitely assigned at that point.

The type-reference in an object-type-reference must reference an abstract object type. The object-member-descriptors from the referenced type are copied into the type being defined; the meaning is the same as if they had been specified explicitly.

If a non-abstract object type T o has a type reference to an abstract object type T a , then each method declared in T a must be defined in T o using a method-defn with the same visibility.

If T a has a method or field with module-level visibility, the T o must be in the same module. A future value refers to a named worker, which will return a value.

A value belongs to a type future without the type-parameter if it has basic type future. A resource method is a special kind of method, with associated configuration data, that is invoked in response to network messages received by a Listener.

A service can be thought of as the dual of a client object. It is planned that a future version of Ballerina will provide a mechanism that allows more precise typing of services.

In the meantime, implementations can use annotations on type definitions to support this. A type descriptor value is an immutable value representing a resolved type descriptor.

The type typedesc contains all values with basic type typedesc. The typedesc type is thus covariant with its type parameter.

Referencing an identifier defined by a type definition in an expression context will result in a type descriptor value.

A handle value is a reference to storage managed externally to a Ballerina program. Handle values are useful only in conjunction with functions that have external function bodies; in particular, a new handle value can be created only by a function with an external function body.

It is important to understand that the type descriptors specified in this section do not add to the universe of values.

They are just adding new ways to describe subsets of this universe. A singleton type is a type containing a single shape. A singleton type is described using an compile-time constant expression for a single value: the type contains the shape of that value.

Note that it is possible for the variable-reference within the simple-const-expr to reference a structured value.

The value space of a union type T1 T2 is the union of T1 and T2. The type descriptor any describes the type consisting of all values other than errors.

A value belongs to the any type if and only if its basic type is not error. Thus all values belong to the type any error. Note that a structure with members that are errors belongs to the any type.

The type descriptor anydata describes the type of all pure values other than errors. The type anydata contains a shape if and only if the shape is pure and is not the shape of an error value.

Note that anydata allows structures whose members are errors. Thus the type anydata error is the supertype of all pure types.

The type anydata is equivalent to the union. The json type is designed for processing data expression in JSON format. It is a built-in name for a union defined as follows:.

In addition, the json type is defined to have lax static typing. There are several abstract object types that are built-in in the sense that the language treats objects with these types specially.

Note that it is only the types that are built-in; the names of these types are not built-in. A value that is iterable as a sequence of values of type T provides a way of creating an iterator object that matches the type.

Conceptually an iterator represents a position between members of the sequence. Possible positions are at the beginning immediately before the first member if any , between members and at the end immediately after the last member if any.

A newly created iterator is at the beginning position. For an empty sequence, there is only one possible position which is both at the beginning and at the end.

Mutation of the container during iteration is handled as follows. At any point during the execution of a program, a container has a set of valid keys; these are keys for which the container has a member; a key has type int for lists and type string for maps.

A call to next must panic if the set of valid keys is not the same as the set of valid keys when the iterator was created, with the following exception: it is allowed to remove a key if the member for that key has already been returned by next.

The value that a container associates with a particular key may change during the iteration; next must return the value associated with the key at the point when next is called.

Note that it is not possible for the next method simply to return a member of the sequence, since a nil member would be indistinguishable from the return value for the end position.

These section specifies a number of operations that can be performed on values. These operations are for internal use by the specification.

These operations are named in CamelCase with an initial upper-case letter to distinguish them from functions in the lang library.

The FillMember c, k operation is defined for a container value c and a key value k. It can be performed when c does not have a member with key k; if it succeeds, it will result in a member with key k being added to c.

It will succeed if the inherent type of c allows the addition of a member with key k and there is a way to construct a filler value for the type descriptor that the inherent type of c requires for member k.

The following table specifies when and how a filler value can be constructed for a type descriptor. Clone v is defined for any pure value v.

It performs a deep copy, recursively copying all structural values and their members. Clone v for a immutable value v returns v. If v is a container, Clone v has the same inherent type as v.

The graph of references of Clone v must have the same structure as that of v. This implies that the number of distinct references reachable from Clone v must be the same as the number of distinct references reachable from v.

Clone v must terminate for any pure value v, even if v has cycles. Clone v cannot be implemented simply by recursively calling Clone on all members of v.

Rather Clone must maintain a map that records the result of cloning each reference value. When a Clone operation starts, this map as empty.

When cloning a reference value, it must use the result recorded in the map if there is one. The Clone operation is exposed by the clone function in the lang.

ImmutableClone v is defined for any pure value v. It performs a deep copy of v similar to Clone v , except that newly constructed values are constructed as immutable.

Any immutable value is not copied. Like Clone, ImmutableClone must preserve graph structure, including cycles.

Conceptually the whole graph is constructed before being made immutable. The ImmutableClone operation is exposed by the cloneReadOnly function in the lang.

SameShape v1, v2 is defined for any pure values v1, v2. It returns true or false depending of whether v1 and v2 have the same shape.

SameShape v1, v2 must terminate for any pure values v1 and v2, even if v1 or v2 have cycles. SameShape v1, v2 returns true if v1 and v2 have the same shape, even if the graphs of references of v1 and v2 have different structures.

If two values v1 and v2 have different basic types, then SameShape v1, v2 will be false. The possibility of cycles means that SameShape cannot be implemented simply by calling SameShape recursively on members.

Rather SameShape must maintain a mapping that records for each pair of references whether it is already in process of comparing those references.

When a SameShape operation starts, this map is empty. Whenever it starts to compare two references, it should see whether it has already recorded that pair in either order , and, if it has, proceed on the assumption that they compare equal.

NumericConvert t, v is defined if t is the typedesc for float, decimal or int, and v is a numeric value. It converts v to a value in t, or returns an error, according to the following table.

Binding patterns are used to support destructuring, which allows different parts of a single structured value each to be assigned to separate variables at the same time.

A binding pattern may succeed or fail in matching a value. A successful match causes values to be assigned to all the variables occurring the binding-pattern.

Given a type descriptor for every variable in a binding-pattern, there is a type descriptor for the binding-pattern that will contain a value just in case that the binding pattern successfully matches the value causing each variable to be assigned a value belonging to the type descriptor for that variable.

A typed-binding-pattern combines a type-descriptor and a binding-pattern, and is used to create the variables occurring in the binding-pattern.

If var is used instead of a type-descriptor, it means the type is inferred. How the type is inferred depends on the context of the typed-binding-pattern.

The simplest and most common form of a typed-binding-pattern is for the binding pattern to consist of just a variable name. In this case, the variable is constrained to contain only values matching the type descriptor.

When the binding pattern is more complicated, the binding pattern must be consistent with the type-descriptor, so that the type-descriptor unambiguously determines a type for each variable occurring in the binding pattern.

A binding pattern occurring in a typed-binding-pattern must also be irrefutable with respect to the type of value against which it is to be matched.

In other words, the compiler will ensure that matching such a binding pattern against a value will never fail at runtime.

For every variable, there is place in the program that declares it. Variables are lexically scoped: every variable declaration has a scope which determines the region of the program within which the variable can be referenced.

There are two kinds of scope: module-scope and block-scope. A variable with module-scope can be referenced anywhere within a module; if declared public , it can also be referenced from outside the module.

Identifiers with module-scope are used to identify not only variables but other module-level entities such as functions. Within module-scope, identifiers are separated into three symbol spaces:.

The prefix symbol space is special in that it is associated with a source part rather than a module. Block-scope is divided into symbol spaces in the same way as module-scope, except that block-scope does not have a symbol space for annotation tags, since annotation tags cannot be declared with block-scope.

An identifier declared with block-scope can be referenced only within a particular block always delimited with curly braces.

Block-scope variables are created by a variety of different constructs, many of which use a typed-binding-pattern. Parameters are treated as read-only variables with block-scope.

It is not an error if an identifier is declared with block-scope and there is already a declaration of the same identifier in the same symbol space with module-scope.

In this case, the block-scope declaration will hide the module-scope declaration for the region where the block-scope declaration is in scope.

However, it is a compile error if an identifier is declared with block-scope and its scope overlaps with the scope of another declaration of the same identifier in the same symbol space also with block-scope.

For simplicity, the expression grammar is ambiguous. The following table shows the various types of expression in decreasing order of precedence, together with associativity.

When the evaluation of an expression completes normally, it produces a result, which is a value. The evaluation of an expression may also complete abruptly.

There are two kinds of abrupt completion: check-fail and panic. With both kinds of abrupt completion there is an associated value, which always has basic type error.

The following sections describes how each kind expression is evaluated, assuming that evaluation of subexpressions complete normally.

Except where explicitly stated to the contrary, expressions handle abrupt completion of subexpressions as follows. If in the course of evaluating an expression E, the evaluation of some subexpression E1 completes abruptly, then then evaluation of E also completes abruptly in the same way as E1.

A type is computed for every expression at compile type; this is called the static type of the expression. The compiler and runtime together guarantee that if the evaluation of an expression at runtime completes normally, then the resulting value will belong to the static type.

A type is also computed for check-fail abrupt completion, which will be a possibly empty subtype of error; however, for panic abrupt completion, no type is computed.

The detailed rules for the static typing of expressions are quite elaborate and are not yet specified completely in this document.

In some situations it is convenient for static typing to be less strict than normal. One such situation is when processing data in Ballerina using a static type that is less precisse than the type that the data is in fact expected to belong to.

For example, when the Ballerina json type is used for the processing of data in JSON format, the Ballerina static type will not capture the constraints of the particular JSON format that is been processed.

Ballerina supports this situation through the concept of lax static typing, which has two parts: the first part is that a type descriptor can be classified as lax; the second part is that particular kinds of expression can have less strict static typing rules when the static type of a subexpression is described by a lax type descriptor.

With these less strict rules, a potential type error that would have been a compile-time error according to the normal strict static typing rules would instead be allowed at compile-time and result in an error value at runtime; the effect is thus that some static type-checking is instead done dynamically.

In this version of Ballerina, only the first step has been taken towards supporting this concept. The only kinds of expression for which lax typing rules are specified are field-access-expr and optional-field-access-expr.

For a context in which an expression occurs, there may be a type descriptor that describes the static type that the expression is expected to have.

This is called the contextually expected type. For example, if a variable is declared by a type descriptor TD, then TD will be the contextually expected type for the expression initializing the variable.

A type descriptor must be resolved before it can be used to provide a contextually expected type. Many kinds of expression that construct values use the contextually expected type to determine the type of value constructed, rather than requiring the type to be specified explicitly.

For each such kind of expression, there is a set of basic types most often consisting of a single basic type that the value constructed by that kind of expression will always belong to.

In this case, the contextually expected type is narrowed by intersecting it with this set of basic types; this narrowed type is called the applicable contextually expected type.

The narrowing is performed on the type descriptor by first normalizing the type descriptor into a union, where each member of the union is not a union and describes shapes from a single basic type, and then eliminating any members of the union with the wrong basic type; if this leaves no members, then it is a compile-time error; if it leaves a single member of the union, then the the applicable contextually expected type is this single member, otherwise it is a union of the remaining members.

Note the language provides a way to say that the type of a variable is to be inferred from the static type of the expression used to initialize the variable.

In this case, there is no contextually expected type for the evaluation of the expression. Not having a contextually expected type is different from having a contextually expected type that allows all values.

There is an additional complexity relating to inferring types. Expressions in fact have two static types, a precise type and a broad type.

Usually, the precise type is used. However, in a few situations, using the precise type would be inconvenient, and so Ballerina uses the broad type.

In particular, the broad type is used for inferring the type of an implicitly typed non-final variable. Similarly, the broad type is used when it is necessary to infer the member type of the inherent type of a container.

In most cases, the precise type and the broad type of an expression are the same. For a compound expression, the broad type of an expression is computed from the broad type of the sub-expressions in the same way as the precise type of the expression is computed from the precise type of sub-expressions.

Therefore in most cases, there is no need to mention the distinction between precise and broad types. The most important case where the precise type and the broad type are different is literals.

The precise type is a singleton type containing just the shape of the value that the literal represents, whereas the broad type is the precise type widened to contain the entire basic type of which it is a subtype.

For example, the precise type of the string literal "X" is the singleton type "X" , but the broad type is string.

Casting a value does not change the value. Any value always belongs to multiple types. Casting means taking a value that is statically known to be of one type, and using it in a context that requires another type; casting checks that the value is of that other type, but does not change the value.

Conversion is a process that takes as input a value of one type and produces as output a possibly distinct value of another type. Note that conversion does not mutate the input value.

Ballerina always requires programmers to make conversions explicit, even between different types of number; there are no implicit conversions.

A constant-reference-expr must reference a constant defined with module-const-decl. A const-expr is evaluated at compile-time. Constructors called within a const-expr construct their values as immutable.

Note that the syntax of const-expr does not allow for the construction of error values. The result of a const-expr is always immutable.

A simple-const-expr is a restricted form of const-expr used in contexts where various forms of constructor expression would not make sense.

Its semantics are the same as a const-expr. A numeric-literal represents a value belonging to one of the basic types int, float or decimal.

The basic type to which the value belongs is determined as follows:. The precise type of a numeric-literal is the singleton type containing just the shape of the value that the numeric-literal represents.

The broad type is the basic type of which the precise type is a subset. The static type of byte-array-literal is byte2407 , where N is the number of bytes encoded by the Base16Literal or Base64Literal.

The inherent type of the array value created is also byte2407. Creates a new list value. The members of the list come from evaluating each expression in the expr-list in order.

If there is a contextually expected type, then the inherent type of the newly created list is derived from the applicable contextually expected type.

If the applicable contextually expected type is a list type descriptor, then that used as the inherent type. If the applicable contextually expected type is a union type descriptor, then any members of the union that do not contain list shapes of length N will be ignored, where N is the number of expressions in the expr-list ; it is a compile-time error if this does not leave a single list type descriptor, which is then used as the inherent type.

The static type of the list-constructor-expr will be the same as the inherent type. If there is no contextually expected type, then the inherent type will be T[] , where T is the union of the broad types of the expressions in expr-list.

It is an compile-time error if expr-list is empty and there is no contextually expected type. If there is a contextually expected type, then the type that the inherent type requires for each list member provides the contextually expected type for the expression for the member; otherwise there is no contextually expected type for the expressions for members.

A member of a list can be filled in automatically if the FillMember abstract operation would succeed on it. The inherent type of a list establishes either a fixed length for the list or just a minimum length for the list, which may be zero.

If there is a contextually expected type, then the inherent type of the newly created mapping is derived from the applicable contextually expected type.

If the applicable contextually expected type is a mapping type descriptor, then that used as the inherent type. If the applicable contextually expected type is a union type descriptor, then any members of the union that are inconsistent with the field names specified as a literal-field-name in the mapping-constructor-expr will be ignored; it is a compile-time error if this does not leave a single mapping type descriptor, which is then used as the inherent type.

The static type of the mapping-constructor-expr will be the same as the inherent type. It is an compile-time error if there is both no value-expr and no contextually expected type.

If the inherent type descriptor is a record type descriptor and a field is specified using a field-name rather than a string-literal or expression, then the record type descriptor must include that field-name as an individual-type-descriptor.

If the inherent type descriptor is a record type descriptor, a field will be added to the constructed value using the default value from the type descriptor for any field that is not specified explicitly in the mapping constructor and that has a default value.

If there is a contextually expected type, then the type that the inherent type requires for each field provides the contextually expected type for the value-expr for that field; otherwise there is no contextually expected type for the value-expr forfields.

The contextually expected type for a computed-field-name is string. A field can have a computed field name, where the name of the field is specified by an expression enclosed in square brackets.

A mapping-constructor-expr first constructs a mapping value without considering any fields with a computed field name. The effect of a field with a computed fieldname is to modify the member of the mapping with that name after the mapping has been constructed.

If the modification is incompatible with the inherent type, then the mapping-constructor-expr will panic. The modifications are performed in the order in which the fields with computed field names occur in the mapping-constructor-expr.

The contextually expected type of the table-constructor-expr determines the inherent type of the constructed value. A service-constructor-expr constructs a service value.

The result of evaluating a service-constructor-expr is a value of type service. If a service-method-defn contains a resource qualifier, then it defines a resource method.

The self variable can be used in a method-body of a service-method-defn in the same way as for objects.

Each service value has a distinct type descriptor. Evaluating a service constructor thus has an effect analogous to defining an anonymous object type and then creating a value of that type.

The return type of a resource method must be a subtype of error? A string-template-expr interpolates the results of evaluating expressions into a literal string.

The static type of the expression in each interpolation must be a simple type and must not be nil. Within a BacktickString , every character that is not part of an interpolation is interpreted as a literal character.

A string-template-expr is evaluated by evaluating the expression in each interpolation in the order in which they occur, and converting the result of the each evaluation to a string as if using by toString function of the lang.

The result of evaluating the string-template-expr is a string comprising the literal characters and the results of evaluating and converting the interpolations, in the order in which they occur in the BacktickString.

An implicit-new-expr is equivalent to an explicit-new-expr that specifies the applicable contextually expected type as the type descriptor.

An implicit-new-expr consisting of just new is equivalent to new. A variable-reference can refer to a variable, a parameter, a constant defined with a module constant declaration , a function or a type defined with a type definition.

If the variable-reference references a type defined with a type definition, then the result of evaluating the variable-reference-expr is a typedesc value for that type.

A field-access-expr accesses a field of an object or a member of a mapping. The semantics depends on the static type T of expression.

If T is a subtype of the object basic type, then T must have a field field-name and the static type of the field-access-expr is the type of that field.

In this case, the field-access-expr is evaluated by first evaluating the expression to get a value obj ; the result of the field-access-expr is the value of that field of obj.

The rest of this subsection applies when T is not a subtype of the object basic type. Let T' be the intersection of T and basic type list, let K be the singleton type containing just the string field-name, and let M be the member type for K in T'.

The compile-time requirements on the field-access-expr depend on whether the type descriptor describing T is lax:. The static type of field-access-expr is M E, where E is empty if K is a required key type and T' is a subtype of T, and error otherwise E can only be error in the lax case.

In the lax case, if M is lax, then the static type of the field-access-expr is lax even if E is an error. An optional-field-access-expr accesses a possibly undefined mapping member, returning if the member does not exist.

Let T be the static type of expression, let T' be the intersection of T and basic type list, let K be the singleton type containing just the string field-name and let M be the member type of K in T'.

The compile-time requirements on the optional-field-access-expr depend on whether the type descriptor describing T is lax:.

The annot-tag-reference must refer to an annotation tag0 declared with an annotation declaration.

The static type of expression must be a subtype of typedesc. An annot-access-expr is evaluated by first evaluating expression resulting in a typedesc value t.

If t has an annotation with the tag referenced by annot-tag-reference , then the result of the annot-access-expr is the value of that annotation; otherwise, the result is nil.

The static type of the annot-access-expr is T? A member-access-expr accesses a member of a container value using its key, or a character of a string using its index.

Let T the static type of container-expression. If T is a subtype of string, then the static type of the member-access-expr is string.

Otherwise, let K be the static type of key-expression and let M be the member type of K in T; if T contains nil, or T is a subtype of mapping and K is an optional key type for T, then the static type of the member-access-expr is M?

Returns the attributes map of a singleton xml value, or nil if the operand is not a singleton xml value. A function-call-expr is evaluated by constructing an argument list and passing the argument list to the function referred to by the variable-name.

If the function terminates normally, then the result of the function-call-expr is the return value of the function; otherwise the function-call-expr completes abruptly with a panic.

The static type of the function-call-expr is the return type of the function type. The variable-reference must refer to a variable with function type.

The type descriptor of that function type is used to construct an argument list from the specified arg-list. Note that it is the type descriptor of the declared type of the variable that is used for this purpose, rather than the runtime type descriptor of the referenced function value.

The expressions occurring in the arg-list are evaluated in the order in which they occur in the arg-list. The result of evaluating each positional-arg is added to the argument list in order.

The contextually expected type for the expression in the i-th positional-arg is the type of the i-th parameter.

If there is a rest-arg, then it is evaluated. The result must be a list value. Each member of the list value is added to the argument in the order that it occurs.

The static type of the list value must be such as to guarantee that the resulting argument list will conform to the function's declared param-list.

The rest-arg is not restricted to supplying the part of the argument list that will be bound to a rest-param, and its static type is not restricted to being an array type.

If there is rest-arg, then no parameter defaults are added. If there is no rest-arg, then each non-rest parameter that was not supplied by positional argument is added in order from a named argument, if there is one, and otherwise using the parameter default.

An arg-list can only use a named argument to specify a parameter if the name of the parameter is visible at the point where the arg-list occurs.

The contextually expected type for the expression specifying a named argument is the type declared for the corresponding parameter.

A default parameter is computed by calling the closure in the type descriptor, passing it the previous arguments in the argument list.

It is a compile-time error if there is a non-rest parameter for which there was no positional argument and no named argument and which is not defaultable.

It is also an error if there is a named argument for a parameter that was supplied by a positional argument. When a function to be called results from the evaluation of an expression that is not merely a variable reference, the function can be called by first storing the value of the expression in a variable.

A method-call-expr either calls a method or calls a function in the lang library. The evaluation of the method-call-expr starts by evaluating expression resulting in some value v.

There is no contextually expected type for expression. If the static type of expression is a subtype of object, and the object type includes a method named method-name , then the method-call-expr is executed by calling that method on v.

A method-call-expr can be used within a method of a service to call another method of that service other than a resource method; in this case, expression must be self.

The arg-list is used to construct an argument list that is passed to the method in the same way as with a function-call-expr. A method-call-expr cannot be used to call a remote method; it can only be called by a remote-method-call-action.

A method-call-expr cannot be used to call a resource method. Otherwise, the method-call-expr will be turned into a call to a function in the lang library m:method-name expression, arg-list , where m is an automatically created module prefix for a module lang.

M of the lang library, where M is selected as follows. It is a compile-time error if the resulting function call does not satisfy all the constraints that would apply if it has been written explicitly as a function-call-expr.

An error constructor constructs a new error value. There are two kinds of error constructor: direct and indirect. A direct error constructor specifies the error reason string as the first argument to the constructor.

An indirect error constructor references an error type that determines the reason string. The contextually expected type for the positional-arg in a direct-error-constructor-expr is string.

The error-type-reference in an indirect-error-constructor must refer to an identifier named by a type definition whose type descriptor is an error type descriptor, whose reason-type-descriptor is a singleton string.

Evaluating the error-constructor-expr creates a new detail mapping. Each named-arg specifies a field of the error detail mapping; the static type of each named-arg must be a pure type.

If there is a contextually-expected-type for a direct-error-constructor-expr and the applicable contextually expected type is an error type descriptor rather than a union with detail type D , then the error detail mapping will also have a field for any defaultable fields of D for which no named-arg was specified.

The contextually expected type for each named-arg is determined by the applicable contextually type in the same way as for a mapping-constructor-expr.

The detail mapping for an indirect-error-constructor-expr is constructed as if by the equivalent direct-error-constructor-expr, and so in this case there will always be an applicable contextually expected type that is an error type descriptor.

The detail mapping is constructed as immutable, with its members being the result of appplying the ImmutableClone abstract operation to the result of evaluating each named-arg and every defaultable arg.

The stack trace in the constructed error value describes the execution stack at the point where the error constructor was evaluated.

Evaluating an anonymous-function-expr creates a closure, whose basic type is function. If function-body-block refers to a block-scope variable defined outside of the function-body-block, the closure will capture a reference to that variable; the captured reference will refer to the same storage as the original reference not a copy.

Arrow functions provide a convenient alternative to anonymous function expressions that can be used for many simple cases. An arrow function can only be used in a context where a function type is expected.

The types of the parameters are inferred from the expected function type. The scope of the parameters is expression.

The static type of the arrow function expression will be a function type whose return type is the static type of expression. If the contextually expected type for the arrow-function-expr is a function type with return type T, then the contextually expected type for expression is T.

Normally, the parameter for a type-cast-expr includes a type-descriptor. However, it is also allowed for the parameter to consist only of annotations; in this case, the only effect of the type cast is for the contextually expected type for expression to be augmented with the specified annotations.

The rest of this subsection describes the normal case, where the type-cast-expr includes a type-descriptor. A type-cast-expr casts the value resulting from evaluating expression to the type described by the type-descriptor, performing a numeric conversion if required.

A type-cast-expr is evaluated by first evaluating expression resulting in a value v. Let T be the type described by type-descriptor. If v belongs T, then the result of the type-cast-expr is v.

Otherwise, if T includes shapes from exactly one basic numeric type N and v is belongs to another basic numeric type, then let n be NumericConvert N, v ; if n is not an error and n belongs to T, then the result of the type-cast-expr is n.

Otherwise, the evaluation of the type-cast-expr completes abruptly with a panic. Let T be the static type described by type-descriptor , and let TE be the static type of expression.

Then the static type of the type-cast-expr is the intersection of T and TE', where TE' is TE with its numeric shapes transformed to take account to the possibility of the numeric conversion specified in the previous paragraph.

The type-descriptor provides the contextually expected type for expression. The result of a typeof-expr is a typedesc value for the runtime type of v, where v is the result of evaluating expression.

The unary - operator performs negation. The static type of the operand must be a number; the static type of the result is the same basic type as the static type of the operand.

The semantics for each basic type are as follows:. If the contextually expected type for a - expression is T, then the contextualy expected type for the operand expressions is T', where a value v is in T' if it belongs to int, decimal or float, and T contains a value with the same basic type as v.

The static type of the operand must be a number, and the static type of the result is the same as the static type of the operand expression.

The static type of the operand must be int, and the static type of the result is an int. The static type of the operand expression must be boolean.

The static type of both operand expressions is required to be a subtype of the same basic type; this basic type will be the static type of the result.

The following basic types are allowed:. If the contextually expected type for a multiplicative-expr is T, then the contextualy expected type for both operand expressions is T', where a value v is in T' if it belongs to int, decimal or float, and T contains a value with the same basic type as v.

If the contextually expected type for a multiplicative-expr is T, then the contextualy expected type for both operand expressions is T', where a value v is in T' if it belongs to int, decimal, float, string or xml and T contains a value with the same basic type as v.

A shift-expr performs a bitwise shift. Both operand expressions must have static type that is a subtype of int.

Then a bitwise shift is performed depending on the operator:. The static type of both operands must be of the same basic type, which must be int, float or decimal.

The static type of the result is boolean. An is-expr is evaluated by evaluating the expression yielding a result v.

If v belongs to the type denoted by type-descriptor, then the result of the is-expr is true; otherwise the result of the is-expr is false.

An equality-expr tests whether two values are equal. For all four operators, it is a compile time error if the intersection of the static types of the operands is empty.

Two values are exactly equal if they have the same basic type T and. Two values v1, v2 are deeply equal if SameShape v1, v2 is true. This means that neither of these operators correspond to operations defined by IEEE , because they do not treat NaN in the special way defined for those operations.

For the decimal type, the operators differ in whether they consider the precision of the value. For example, 1.

The static type of both operands must be a subtype of int. The static type of the result is as follows:. If the static type of expression e is T E, where E is a subtype of error, then the static type of check e is T.

The trap expression stops a panic and gives access to the error value associated with the panic. Actions are an intermediate syntactic category between expressions and statements.

Actions are similar to expressions, in that they yield a value. However, an action cannot be nested inside an expression; it can only occur as part of a statement or nested inside other actions.

This is because actions are shown in the sequence diagram in the graphical syntax. An action is evaluated in the same way as an expression.

Static typing for actions is the same as for expressions. A checking-action and trap-action is evaluated in the same way as a checking-expr and trap-expr respectively.

Ballerina's concurrency model supports both threads and coroutines. A Ballerina program is executed on one or more threads. A thread may run on a separate core simultaneously with other threads, or may be pre-emptively multitasked with other threads onto a single core.

Each thread is divided into one or more strands. No two strands belonging to the same thread can run simultaneously. Instead, all the strands belonging to a particular thread are cooperatively multitasked.

Strands within the same thread thus behave as coroutines relative to each other. A strand enables cooeperative multitasking by yielding.

When a strand yields, the runtime scheduler may suspend execution of the strand, and switch its thread to executing another strand. The following actions cause a strand to yield:.

In addition, any function with an external-function-body can potentially yield; it should only do so if it performs a system call that would block.

Functions in the lang library do not themselves yield, although if they call a function passed as an argument, that function may result in yielding.

There are two language constructs whose execution causes the creation of new strands: named-worker-decl and start-action.

These constructs may use annotations to indicate that the newly created strand should be in a separate thread from the current strand.

In the absence of such annotations, the new strand must be part of the same thread as the current strand. A worker represents a single strand of a function invocation.

A statement is always executed in the context of a current worker. A worker is in one of three states: active, inactive or terminated.

When a worker is in the terminated state, it has a termination value. A worker terminates either normally or abnormally.

An abnormal termination results from a panic, and in this case the termination value is always an error. If the termination value of a normal termination is an error, then the worker is said to have terminated with failure; otherwise the worker is said to have terminated with success.

Note that an error termination value resulting from a normal termination is distinguished from an error termination value resulting from an abnormal termination.

A function always has a single default worker, which is unnamed. The strand for the default worker is the same as the strand of the worker on which function was called.

When a function is called, the current worker becomes inactive, and a default worker for the called function is started. When the default worker terminates, the function returns to its caller, and the caller's worker is reactivated.

Thus only one worker in each strand is active at any given time. If the default worker terminates normally, then its termination value provides the return value of the function.

If the default worker terminates abnormally, then the evaluation of the function call expression completes abruptly with a panic and the default worker's termination value provides the associated value for the abrupt completion of the function call.

The function's return type is the same as the return type of the function's default worker. A function also has zero or more named workers.

Each named worker runs on its own new strand. The termination of a function is independent of the termination of its named workers. The termination of a named worker does not automatically result in the termination of its function.

When a default worker terminates causing the function to terminate, the function does not automatically wait for the termination of its named workers.

A named worker has a return type. If the worker terminates normally, the termination value will belong to the return type.

If the return type of a worker is not specified, it defaults to nil as for functions. Variables declared in default-worker-init are in scope within named workers, whereas variables declared in default-worker are not.

The execution of a worker's sequence-stmt may result in the execution of a statement that causes the worker to terminate.

For example, a return statement causes the worker to terminate. If this does not happen, then the worker terminates as soon as it has finished executing its sequence-stmt.

In this case, the worker terminates normally, and the termination value is nil. In other words, falling off the end of a worker is equivalent to return; , which is in turn equivalent to return ;.

The parameters declared for a function are in scope in the function-body-block. They are implicitly final: they can be read but not modified.

They are in scope for named workers as well as for the default worker. The scope of a worker-name in a named-worker-decl that is part of a function-body-block is the entire function-body-block with the exception of the default-worker-init.

When a worker-name is in scope, it can be used in a variable-reference-expr. The result of evaluating such a variable reference is a future value that refers to the value to be returned by that named worker.

A strand can initiate a wait on another strand by using a wait-action with a value of type future. Only one wait on a strand can succeed; this wait receives the value returned by the strand.

Any other waits on that strand fail. It is a compile-time error if for any named worker it is possible for the name of that worker to be evaluated as a variable-reference more than once for any execution of that worker.

This ensures that wait operations that use just a worker-name to identify the strand to wait on cannot fail at runtime.

The execution of any statement may involve the evaluation of actions and expressions, and the execution of substatements.

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